By Professor William Labov, Sharon Ash, Associate Professor of Linguistics Charles Boberg
Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound switch
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Extra info for Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change
Sampling in communities with a range of sizes was undertaken in order to represent both the dimensions of geographic dispersion and population density. First, seven focal places were targeted: Chicago, IL; Milwaukee, WI; Duluth, MN/Superior, WI; Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN; Des Moines, IA; Sioux Falls, SD; and Omaha, NE. Four of these are dominant metropolises with a 1990 population over 300,000: Chicago, Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, and Omaha. The remaining three were selected to provide geographical coverage; they all have a population over 100,000, and they provide points 150 miles or more from the four larger cities.
6. Movements across and within subsystems in the Southern Shift (red) and Back Upglide Shift (blue) The combination of movements across subsystems and movements within subsystems operates to move languages or dialects in different directions. If a hole in the pattern of long vowels is created by the Upper Exit principle, then the remaining long vowels will rise. 8. The Canadian Shift Most of the arrows in the preceding diagrams are a reﬂection of observed phonetic movements. In the case of the low back merger, it is not immediately obvious in which direction the arrow should be drawn.
U:, respelled in the French style as ou, diphthongized with further nucleus-glide differentiation in the Great Vowel Shift, in house, mouth, proud, now, cow. This process did not affect vowels before labials or velars or after /y/, which remain in the current /uw/ class: you, your, youth, soup, group, etc. E. and French sources, spelled u, eau, ew, ui, which were generally realized with a palatal onglide as /juw/. The loss of the glide after coronals in North America created the opposition of /iw/ and /uw/ in dew vs.
Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change by Professor William Labov, Sharon Ash, Associate Professor of Linguistics Charles Boberg