By John J. Winkler
Utilizing fresh advances in literary concept, Winkler tackles the elusive that means of Apuleius's `The Golden Ass', in particular the connection among ebook and reader.
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Extra info for Auctor and Actor: A Narratological Reading of Apuleius' the Golden Ass
For Sordello, it was a zero-sum game: the existence of virile women depleted male masculinity. ”56 Lucas emphasized Fernando’s humility and filial piety, rather than his patroness’s gender inappropriate aggression, or even gender confusion, as she once again wielded the rod. At the same time, he acknowledged Berenguela as the source of Fernando’s kingship, and the metaphor of student/master is not lost on the reader—Berenguela was in charge, the (masculine) disciplinarian and the instructor. Despite his steadfast attempts to reconcile Berenguela’s actions with her gender by emphasizing her modesty and reluctance to leave the world of women, Rodrigo was also anxious lest Berenguela appear to make her son effeminate.
30 The taller alfonsí drew largely on Lucas’s Chronicon mundi and Rodrigo’s De rebus Hispanie; it made little or no use of the Chronica latina. However, because all three Latin chronicles were completed (or otherwise left unfinished) before Berenguela died, the Primera crónica general is useful for her later years. I have used it mainly as a source for the years following 1243, when Archbishop Rodrigo had completed his work, and occasionally to offer a vernacular, historical perspective on the Latin texts.
For queens who did not become pregnant, their gender might have spelled disaster; they could rarely transcend themselves. As for several queens in this study, a great deal of their observable activity was carried out while they were pregnant or newly delivered of a child. Berenguela was pregnant or had just borne an infant every year she was queen of León. Although Berenguela’s marriage ended relatively quickly, and thus her opportunity for legitimate pregnancy, she had established her fecundity, secured her heirs, and eventually made certain that her sons did the same.
Auctor and Actor: A Narratological Reading of Apuleius' the Golden Ass by John J. Winkler